Citation and reference guidelines

Authors need to provide citations and references according to the following guidelines. Please contact the Editorial Office in case of questions:

1. In-text citations

Please list in-text citations in alphabetical, not temporal, order, for example: (Engelhardt, 2016; Fasang, 2012; Pfau-Effinger, 2017; Pollmann-Schult, 2018; Zartler, 2020).

Please use '&' in case of two authors, for example: (Leopold & Skopek, 2015).

Please use 'et al.' in case of three or more authors, for example: (Engelhardt et al., 2020).

2. List of references

Please use the citation style of the American Psychological Association (APA), 7th edition. This style is included in all standard citation managing software (such as Endnote, Mendeley, Zotero, and others).

All English titles of books and articles start with a capital letter, all following words are to be written in lower case, except for proper names, all words for which upper case is mandatory, names of institutions and studies/programs.

If possible, diacritical signs in proper names (mostly family names) should be employed, e.g. Krämer, Kağıcıbaşı, Forêt, Ásvány, Gałęwewski.

2.1 Examples

2.1.1 Books

Pfau-Effinger, B. (2004). Development of culture, welfare states and women's employment in Europe. Ashgate.

Schneider, N.F., & Kreyenfeld, M. (Eds.) (2021). Research handbook on the sociology of the family. ElgarOnline.

2.1.2 Book chapters

Legewie, N.L., & Fasang, A.E. (2021). Digital family research. In N.F. Schneider & M. Kreyenfeld (Eds.), Research handbook on the sociology of the family (pp. 89-106). ElgarOnline.

2.1.3 Journal articles

Engelhardt, H. (2012). Late careers in Europe: Effects of individual and institutional factors. European Sociological Review, 28(4): 550-563.

Leopold, T., Raab, M., & Engelhardt, H. (2014). The transition to parent care: Costs, commitments, and caregiver choice among children. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(2): 300-318.

2.1.4 Other work (Preprints, working or conference papers, theses, etc.)

Betthäuser, B., Trinh, N.A., & Fasang, A.E. (2021). The temporal dimension of parental employment: Fixed-term contracts, non-standard work schedules and children’s education in Germany. SocArXiv Preprint,

2.1.5 Online resources

European Institute for Gender Equality (2017). Gender Equality Index 2017. Measuring gender equality in the European Union 2005–2015. [retrieved July 5, 2019]

2.2 Further notes

The list of references at the end of the article should be double spaced, with hanging indents, in APA style, and alphabetized. Include only references that are cited in the text.

Please supply a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for all pertinent entries in the following format:

Please note that page numbers are required for all articles and book chapters.

Entries with eight or more authors should include the names of the first six authors, an ellipsis (i.e., "..."), and the name of the final author.

If a source is available most readily online, provide the URL.

Give publishers as brief as possible; remove The, Publishers, Co., and Inc., but retain terms such as Books and Press (e.g., Basic Books, Blackwell, Erlbaum, Macmillan, Sage, Wiley).

The title of the journal prior to 2020 was Zeitschrift für Familienforschung | Journal of Family Research, and prior to 2003 Zeitschrift für Familienforschung; from 2020 onward it has been Journal of Family Research.

Transparency note: These citation and reference guidelines are pretty much identical to those of our esteemed fellow journal, the "Journal of Marriage and Family" (verision of July 2020;